Christian Doctrine

Adis K.

1st Century Christian Doctrine vs. Roman Alterations

Christianity, Faith, Religious Texts

The Christian doctrine has evolved over the millennia, with the Roman Catholic Church playing a pivotal role in shaping many beliefs and practices. This article explores the critical theological differences between the teachings of 1st-century Christianity taught by Jesus and the doctrines later developed and endorsed by the Roman Catholic Church.

1st Century Christian Doctrine & Beliefs

The inception of Christianity, following the sacrificial death and subsequent resurrection of Jesus Christ, was profoundly rooted in His teachings and the foundational Christian doctrine He established. Moreover, the interpretations and principles set forth by His chosen apostles played a pivotal role in shaping the early Christian doctrine and its subsequent trajectory.

Salvation Through Faith Alone

Central to the tenets of early Christian doctrine was the unequivocal belief in salvation achieved solely through unwavering faith in Jesus Christ. The Apostle Paul, reinforcing this foundational Christian doctrine, reiterates this in his letter to the Ephesians: “For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God” (Ephesians 2:8, KJV). This scripture underscores the grace of God as the primary source of salvation, achievable not through human merit but through faith in Christ’s redemptive sacrifice on the cross.

Absence of Sacramental Rituals

The early believers did participate in rites like baptism and the Lord’s Supper. These acts were viewed as symbolic gestures, showcasing one’s commitment to Christ and commemorating His sacrifice. However, these practices were straightforward, without the complex sacramental theology that the Roman Catholic Church would later develop. Intriguingly, while the Roman Church expanded on these rituals, many of their elaborations could be seen as deviations from, or even contrary to, 1st-century scripture. The original Christian doctrine emphasized the spiritual significance of these acts, not the ritualistic procedures that later became prevalent.

Decentralized Nature of 1st Century Christian Communities

A hallmark of early Christian communities was their aversion to a centralized governing structure, a stark contrast to the organized religion model that the Roman Empire would later institutionalize. Instead of the rigid hierarchy or a singular supreme authority such as the Pope that Roman Catholicism introduced, early Christian groups operated under the guidance of elders and apostles.

Jesus’ Emphasis on Personal Relationship with God

Jesus consistently emphasized a direct, personal relationship with God, bypassing the need for institutional intermediaries. He taught His followers to pray directly to the Father (Matthew 6:9) and assured them of the Holy Spirit’s guidance (John 14:26). This approach underscored a relationship built on personal faith, not on religious bureaucracy.

These leaders, either direct disciples of Christ or those appointed by such disciples, offered spiritual and ethical direction, anchoring communities firmly in Christ’s teachings. The inherent decentralized structure promoted intimate interactions within communities, nurturing authentic spiritual development rooted in the education of Christ and His apostles.

The Distinction between Early Christianity and Organized Religion

It’s imperative to understand that early Christianity, as practised in the 1st century, starkly contrasts with what many today recognize as “organized religion.” In examining the teachings and practices of early Christian communities, we discern a foundational emphasis on spiritual personalism over ecclesiastical formalism. Here are some significant points that highlight the difference:

  • Absence of a Central Authority: Early Christianity didn’t have a governing body or figurehead, unlike later denominations.
  • Community-Led Gatherings: Meetings were often in homes and led by various community members.
  • Direct Relationship with God: Jesus’ teachings emphasized a direct, unmediated relationship with God.
  • Lack of Codified Rituals: There weren’t elaborate sacraments; rituals like baptism were simple and focused on personal commitment.
  • Decentralized Teachings: Instead of a singular doctrine or catechism, teachings were based on the direct words of Jesus and the guidance of apostles.
  • Absence of Religious Institutions: There were no grand cathedrals or dedicated religious buildings; the early church was a community, not an edifice.
  • Guidance through the Holy Spirit: Believers were taught to rely on the Holy Spirit for guidance, not on a religious hierarchy.
  • Egalitarianism: Early Christianity had a more egalitarian ethos, with men and women playing active roles in spiritual gatherings.
  • Adaptive and Flexible: Without a strict hierarchical structure, early Christian practices were more adaptive to the needs of individual communities.
  • Reliance on Personal Testimonies: Instead of a canonized religious text, early believers relied heavily on personal testimonies, oral traditions, and letters.

In contrast, the advent of the Roman Catholic Church marked the beginning of Christian “organized religion” as we understand it today. This was followed by establishing other organized religious structures, such as the Eastern Orthodox Church and Islam in a different cultural context. However, it’s crucial to remember that the teachings of Jesus Christ were rooted in promoting a personal relationship with God, not establishing an institutionalized religion.

Roman Catholic Developments

As the Roman Empire played a larger role in Christianity’s development, the faith witnessed considerable evolution, doctrinally and in practice. Many of these changes became central to what is now recognized as Roman Catholicism, distinct from the teachings and practices of early Christianity.

Establishment of the Papacy

Between the 4th and 5th centuries, as Christian doctrine began to evolve, the idea of a unified spiritual leadership emerged prominently with the Bishop of Rome gaining significant influence. As the foundations of Christian doctrine were being shaped, this role metamorphosed into what is recognized today as the Pope, solidifying him as the apex spiritual leader of the worldwide church. The rise of this Christian doctrine became especially pronounced with the decline of the Western Roman Empire, allowing the church to fill the resulting power vacuum.

Interestingly, during this transformative phase in Christian doctrine, the community began endorsing the celebration of Christmas. Before this, December 25th was primarily reserved for pagan festivities such as Saturnalia and Mithraism. With the establishment of the Roman Catholic Church’s particular Christian doctrine, these ancient pagan celebrations were repurposed and integrated, leading many Christians astray into observing traditions they previously avoided.

Development of Sacraments

By the Middle Ages: The Roman Catholic Church, in its quest to establish a more structured and comprehensive ritualistic approach, codified seven sacraments. These included rites like Confirmation, Penance (or Confession), and Anointing of the Sick. While the early Christians practised forms of baptism and the Lord’s Supper, these additional sacraments, with their detailed theological underpinnings, were not part of 1st-century Christian rituals.

Introduction of Purgatory


Circa 12th Century: As Christian doctrine continued to evolve, the concept of Purgatory—a transient realm where souls experience purification before entering heaven—began to solidify in the collective belief system. This doctrine proposed that souls in Purgatory could benefit from prayers, acts of penance, or almsgiving, aiding their purification journey. While traces of this belief can be found in earlier centuries, it was in the 12th century that it became more deeply entrenched in Christian doctrine, presenting a more detailed perspective of the afterlife than the initial teachings of early Christianity.

The Rosary’s Introduction

Circa 12th Century: Devotional practices underwent significant changes, with the rosary emerging as a predominant tool for meditation. This repetitive prayer, focusing on events from the lives of Jesus and the Virgin Mary, became widely adopted. Its beads facilitated meditation on the ‘mysteries’—key events in the lives of these central figures. Though a significant aspect of later Christian piety, it did not find a place in the practices of the 1st-century church.

Veneration of Saints and Relics

Throughout the Middle Ages: As time progressed, the Catholic Church began recognizing and venerating certain individuals for their exceptional purity, miracles, or martyrdom. These saints became intermediaries, with believers praying to them for intercession. Moreover, relics—physical remains or personal artifacts of these saints—became focal points of veneration, believed to be imbued with divine power. This devotion marked a shift from the early Christians’ more direct forms of worship.

Key Theological Differences

Christianity, as with many religious traditions, has seen its fair share of shifts, evolutions, and divergences over the millennia. These differences became especially pronounced as the Roman Catholic Church solidified its doctrines, distinguishing itself from the foundational beliefs and practices of the early Christian church. Here are some of the significant theological distinctions that arose:

Justification and Salvation

Following the teachings of Jesus and His apostles, early Christians predominantly believed that salvation came through faith alone. This concept is exemplified in scriptures such as Ephesians 2:8-9, which states, “For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: Not of works, lest any man should boast.” However, as time progressed and theological debates intensified, the Catholic Church, especially post the Council of Trent in the 16th Century, began emphasizing a blend of faith and works for justification and salvation. This council clearly articulated that both faith and deeds were integral to salvation, in opposition to the Protestant Reformation’s sola fide (faith alone) doctrine.

The Role of Mary

Mary, the mother of Jesus, held a special place in early Christian reverence, recognized for her unique role in the incarnation of Christ. However, as centuries passed, her veneration within the Roman Catholic tradition intensified. Several doctrines developed around her, including beliefs in her Immaculate Conception (conceived without original sin) and her Assumption (taken into heaven body and soul). Particularly during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, artistic and theological works dedicated to Mary reached a zenith, underscoring her elevated position as not just the mother of Jesus but as the ‘Mother of God’ or ‘Theotokos.’ This heightened veneration contrasts with the simpler, though respectful, acknowledgment she received in early Christian communities.

Tradition vs. Scripture

Reliance on Apostolic Teachings

The nascent Christian community heavily depended on apostolic teachings and scriptures, forming the essential core of what would later be canonized as the New Testament.

Merging Scripture and Tradition

As the Roman Catholic Church expanded, it integrated Church traditions, papal edicts, and ecclesiastical council decisions alongside the scriptures. This blend of sources became distinctive of the Catholic Church’s Christian doctrine.

The Rise of the Protestant Reformation

Christian Doctrine Martin Luther

Sola Scriptura

Advocates of the Reformation, recognizing the divergence from the original Christian doctrine, championed “sola scriptura” or “scripture alone” as the central authority on faith matters.

The Printing Press Revolution

The advent of the printing press democratized access to scriptures. It marked the end of papal gatekeeping, making scriptures widely accessible in vernacular languages. This shift, combined with the truths newly available to the common populace, catalyzed the rapid growth and spread of the Protestant Reformation.

One of the pronounced differences between early Christianity and Roman Catholicism is the source of doctrinal authority. The early church, especially in its formative years, leaned heavily on the teachings of the apostles and the writings that would eventually be canonized into the New Testament. As the Roman Catholic Church matured, it began placing equal, if not sometimes greater, emphasis on Church traditions, papal decrees, and councils’ rulings alongside the scriptures.

This dual reliance on scripture and tradition set the Catholic Church apart, especially when contrasted with Protestant denominations during and after the Reformation, which advocated for sola scriptura or scripture alone as the primary source of authority in matters of faith.

Concluding Thoughts

The evolution of Christian doctrine over the centuries reflects the dynamic nature of religious belief and practice. The Roman Catholic Church’s influence on Christianity is undeniable, and while it has played an essential role in shaping Christianity’s landscape, there’s a distinct contrast between its traditions and the practices of the 1st-century church founded by Jesus Christ. However, it’s crucial to recognize that Christianity, at its core, is centered around the teachings of Jesus, the man God Himself. Any diversions or alterations from His teachings and the scriptures can be seen as deviations from the true path.

Notably, specific Bible versions endorsed or propagated by the Vatican, such as the NIV, have been found to lack chapters and verses present in translations like the KJV. Such omissions raise critical questions about the integrity of these versions. For many believers, these discrepancies underscore the importance of adhering to the foundational texts, ensuring the preservation of the unadulterated word of God.

This article offers a general overview of the contrasts between 1st-century Christianity and later Roman Christian doctrine. While we’ve touched upon key differences, we haven’t delved into every nuanced deviation in Christian doctrine over the centuries. In subsequent pieces, we will go deeper, not only highlighting variances in Christian doctrine but also pointing to explicit warnings in 1st-century scriptures. Interestingly, when we trace the trajectory of Christian doctrine alongside practices in Islam and New Age beliefs, it becomes evident that these traditions, with their ancient roots, have interwoven in complex ways through history.

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